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Welding Neck Flanges  The welding neck flange is normally referred to as the "high hub" flange. It is designed to transfers tresses to the pipe, there by reducing high stress concentrations at the base of the flange. The welding neck flange is the best designed but-welded flange of those currently available because of its inherent structural value. It is expensive because of the design.
Threaded (Screwed) Flanges  The threaded flange is similar to the slip-on flange, but the bore is threaded. Its chief merit is that it can be assembled without welding, explaining its use in low pressure service at ordinary atmospheric temperatures, and in highly explosive areas where welding create a hazard.
Slip-on Flanges  The slip-on flange has a low hub because the pipe slips into the flange prior to welding. It is welded both inside and out to provide sufficient strength and prevent leakage. Slip-on flanges are all bored slightly larger than the O.D. of the matching pipe, They are preferred over welding neck flanges by many users due to their lower initial cost, but final installation cost is probably not much less than that of the welding neck flange because of the additional welding involved.
Lap Joint Flanges  The lap joint flange is practically identical to the slip-on flange except it has a radius at the intersection of the bore and flange face. This radius is necessary to have the flange accommodate a lap joint stub end. Normally, a lap joint flange and the lap joint stub end are mated together in an assembly system.
Socket Welding Flanges  The socked welding flange if similar to a slip-on flange except it has a bore and a counterbore dimension. the counterbore is slightly larger than the O.D. of the matching pipe, allowing the pipe to be inserted into the flange similar to a slip-on flange. The diameter of the smaller bore is the same as the I.D. of the matching pipe. A restriction is built into the bottom of the bore which sets as a shoulder for the pipe to rest on. This eliminates any restriction in flow when using a socket welding flange.
Blind Flanges The blind flange is a flange without a bore. It is used to close off the ends of a piping system and/or a pressure vessel opening. It also permits easy access to the interior of a line of vessel once it has been sealed and must be reopened.
Orifice Flanges Orifice Flanges are intended for use instead of standard pipe flanges when an orifice plate or flow nozzle must be installed. Pairs of pressure "Tappings", mostly on 2 sides, directly opposite each other, are machined into the orifice flange. This makes separate orifice carriers or tappings in the pipe wall unnecessary.
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